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Kaloyan of Bulgaria

[Categories: Crusades, Bulgarian monarchs]

Kaloyan Asen, Kalojan, Johannizza, John, "The Romankiller" (c. 1165 – 1207) was Quick Facts about: tsar

A male monarch or emperor (especially of Russia prior to 1917) tsar of Quick Facts about: Bulgaria

A republic in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe Bulgaria (1197-1207). Kaloyan was the younger brother of Ivan Asen I and Peter II. Before 1204, Kaloyan was involved in protracted negotiations with Quick Facts about: Pope Innocent III

Quick Summary not found for this subject Pope Innocent III, promising to unite the Bulgarian church with the Roman Catholic church, if the pope would acknowledge his rank as Tsar. The pope sent a legate with a king's crown instead.

According to the Chronicles of Quick Facts about: Geoffrey of Villehardouin

Quick Summary not found for this subject Geoffrey of Villehardouin, Kaloyan (who he calls Johannizza, King of Bulgaria and Quick Facts about: Wallachia
Quick Summary not found for this subject
Wallachia) had repeatedly attacked Adrianople prior to 1204.

In 1204 the Crusaders of the Quick Facts about: Fourth Crusade

A Crusade from 1202 to 1204 that was diverted into a battle for Constantinople and failed to recapture Jerusalem Fourth Crusade conquered Quick Facts about: Constantinople

The largest city and former capital of Turkey; rebuilt on the site of ancient Byzantium by Constantine I in the fourth century; renamed Constantinople by Constantine who made it the capital of the Byzantine Empire; now the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Chu Constantinople and founded the Quick Facts about: Latin Empire

Quick Summary not found for this subject Latin Empire on the ruins of Quick Facts about: Byzantium

An ancient city on the Bosporus founded by the Greeks; site of modern Istanbul; in 330 Constantine I rebuilt the city and called it Constantinople and made it his capital Byzantium, crowning Quick Facts about: Baldwin

An American eating apple with red or yellow and red skin Baldwin, Count of Flanders (IX) and Hainault (VI), as the Emperor of Constantinople.

The "Greeks" (in this case meaning the Eastern Orthodox former subjects of Byzantium, as opposed to the Roman Catholic "Latins") sent envoys to Kaloyan, promising to make him emperor, if he would provide them with protection. The Crusaders, together with the Quick Facts about: Venetians

A resident of Venice Venetians under Doge Quick Facts about: Enrico Dandolo

Quick Summary not found for this subject Enrico Dandolo, challenged Kaloyan, and on March 29, 1205, laid siege to Adrianople, which Kaloyan had placed under his protection. Kaloyan hurried to Adrianople with a large army composed of Quick Facts about: Bulgars

Quick Summary not found for this subject Bulgars (Quick Facts about: Bulgarians

A native or inhabitant of Bulgaria Bulgarians), Quick Facts about: Vlachs

Quick Summary not found for this subject Vlachs (Quick Facts about: Romanians

A native or inhabitant of Romania Romanians), and 14,000 Cumans mercenaries. On Thursday, April 14, 1205, the Crusaders faced Kaloyan outside of the city of Adrianople in what came to be called the Battle of Odrin. Kaloyan soundly defeated the Crusaders and took Emperor Baldwin prisoner. Baldwin languished in prison in the Bulgarian capital of Quick Facts about: Turnovo

Quick Summary not found for this subject Turnovo until his death on June 11, 1205, despite repeated threats from the pope of a crusade against Bulgaria.
After the Battle of Odrin,
Kaloyan began a merciless war on both the Greeks and Latins. By the summer of 1205, Kaloyan held everything on the western side of the straits of St. George except for Rodosto and Selymbria. Meanwhile Quick Facts about: Theodore I Lascaris

Quick Summary not found for this subject Theodore I Lascaris, Quick Facts about: Emperor of Nicaea

Quick Summary not found for this subject Emperor of Nicaea, had gained considerable territory to the east of Constantinople, following its capture by the Crusaders.

Kaloyan pursued Quick Facts about: Boniface

(Roman Catholic Church) Anglo-Saxon missionary who was sent to Frisia and Germany to spread the Christian faith; was martyred in Frisia (680-754) Boniface, the Marquis of Montferrat and leader of the Fourth Crusade, destroying Seres and Philippopolis. On January 31, 1206, Kaloyan's forces slaughtered 120 Quick Facts about: French

The Romance language spoken in France and in countries colonized by FranceFrench knights near Rusium, and shortly thereafter took Quick Facts about: Arpos

Quick Summary not found for this subject Arpos (called Naples or Napoli by the Crusaders) by force, killed and enslaved its inhabitants, and destroyed the city. When the news of the fate of Arpos (Napoli) reached the city of Rodosto, the Venetians, and the Flemish and French soldiers that were guarding the city fled, and the remaining inhabitants surrendered to Kaloyan. He then captured the cities of Panedor, Quick Facts about: Heraclea

Quick Summary not found for this subject Heraclea (a seaport owned by the Venetians), Daonium, Tzurulum, and Athyra. The Crusaders were left with only Constantinople and the two nearby cities of Bizye and Selymbria.

The Crusaders then had a number of small victories, and began to attack the territories held by Theodore I Lascaris, Emperor of Nicaea. At the beginning of March 1207 Kaloyan and Theodore I Lascaris formed an alliance against the Crusaders. In April of 1207 Kaloyan laid siege to Adrianople, but after a month the Comans left, and Kaloyan ended the siege. In June 1207 Theodore I Lascaris agreed to a two year truce with the Crusaders, who were now under the command of Quick Facts about: Baldwin

An American eating apple with red or yellow and red skin Baldwin's brother Quick Facts about: Henry

A unit of inductance in which an induced electromotive force of one volt is produced when the current is varied at the rate of one ampere per secondHenry. On September 4, 1207, a group of Bulgarians attacked Quick Facts about: Boniface of Montferra

Quick Summary not found for this subject Boniface of Montferrat, killed him and sent his head to Kaloyan. Shortly thereafter Kaloyan was killed in his sleep by Manastre, the leader of the Koumanian mercenaries in his army, during the siege of Solun, Thessalonica.